I have the pretty same issue with iPhone 13 mini and iOS16.2.
The interesting thing is, that the iPhone is able to connect to 2.4g Wifi but not to 5G Wifi (GL-AX1800 Flint). Both are configured with WPA3-SAE.
My iPad Pro with iPadOS 16.2 connects without any issues to both. My MacBook with macOS Ventura connects also without any issues. Both devices have older hardware than the iPhone 13 mini.
I have done some testing. When WiFi-Mode is set to n/ac/ax then it is working with WPA3-SAE.